Before we go into the individual concepts, it is worth taking a look at the background. Since the 16th century, the planning and distribution of office spaces are based on the cell offices of the Florentine Uffizi. In the meantime, this concept is outdated in many industrialized countries, as it is intended to promote hierarchy and bureaucracy, make communication and cooperation more difficult and spatially very inflexible. In Germany, however, cell offices are still one of the most popular forms of office where workers enjoy more privacy, peace and quiet.
Ironically, the Uffizi Gallery can also be considered as birthplace of open-plan offices. The Florentine banks had large halls in addition to the cell offices for the management. Here all routine tasks were done as efficient as possible – that was the only thing that was required or wanted by the workers. The reason they sat in a large open space is still one of the main arguments in favor of a large office: it is much cheaper. But the tasks and demands of the employees changed. In the mid-twentieth century, they were finally seen not only as a "cheap worker", but increasingly as a "knowledge worker" who would bring their knowledge and potential to the company.